Posts tagged HIV prevention
Over the past 5 years, the HPV vaccine has been made widely available for both women and men. Many health organizations are happy about this. They want it to be taken as early as possible. For example, the CDC suggests that kids between ages 11 and 12 get two doses of the vaccine. The younger they get vaccinated, the likelier it is to get rid of this widespread virus.
HPV is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI). It can be spread through sex or skin-to-skin contact. There are 150 different types of the virus. Because of this, a large majority of sexually active people have had HPV at some point in their lives. But more often than not, it goes away without causing any health problems. Lasting HPV, however, can lead to genital warts or certain kinds of cancer.
As a precaution, everyone should take an HPV vaccine. Unfortunately, only a handful of countries approves of men taking it. This does not help prevent the virus from spreading. HPV is too common of a virus for this to happen. Sexually active men need to take this vaccine. Gay men especially.
The Need for Gay Men to Take the HPV Vaccine
Recent studies have shown that anal cancer is most often caused by HPV. They also note that men who have sex with men (MSM) are more likely to get anal cancer than men who only have sex with women. The prevalence of anal HPV is around 45% more common among MSM. Numbers like these make it clear that HPV is a greater risk to gay men.
Gay men with HIV are also greatly affected by HPV. One study showed that 77% of MSM with HIV were also infected with anal HPV. And another showed that 90% of them were infected with at least one type of HPV. These numbers are startlingly high.
As HPV awareness rises, there needs to be a push to start vaccinating men. Too many are at risk. And gay men are uniquely susceptible. Proving them with proper care for this virus will save a lot of lives.
Prevention starts with making HIV less stigmatized. Since its initial outbreak in the 1980s, this has been a major issue. While there is a complexity to this, it’s necessary to address. Getting rid of the lingering stigma will prove to benefit those living with HIV. Over the years, many studies have shown this. Two sectors where a change in procedure would benefit HIV patients most is among health care and law enforcement officials.
HIV Patients Stigmatized by Health Care Providers
Whether it’s intentional or not, HIV inhibits far too many people from accessing HIV prevention, testing, and care, even today. According to the World Health Organization, health workers in several countries have committed breaches of confidentiality.
Honesty is important in these situations. Lack of discretion limits how honest patients are. Fear is another consequence. Less testing is a result of fear. The possibility of that information being made known against their will is a big problem.
HIV Patients Stigmatized by Laws
Criminalizing HIV is another way in which the disease remains stigmatized. They have little basis. There’s very little evidence that they’ve effectively reduced HIV. Up to a quarter of these cases involve either a low or no-risk activity.
Many believe that these laws can undermine prevention efforts. If afraid, testing for HIV among people at risk will be less common. Also, laws of this nature create widespread confusion about which activities are considered high risk. People must be properly educated on HIV in order to prevent it.
Taking preventative measures in making HIV less stigmatized leads to better HIV prevention in general. Better laws could lead to better education. And training health care providers to be better equipped at handling such a sensitive situation would do wonders. Do not underestimate these factors. They can make a difference.
Most people know that HIV negatively impacts the immune system, crippling the body’s ability to fight off infections. The key to fighting the virus is to find out how it infiltrates the immune system. New research has made some developments into HIV and tuberculosis bacterium (MTB).
The Danger of Tuberculosis Bacterium
Tuberculosis bacterium (MTB) is the bacteria that causes tuberculosis to occur. Normally, the immune system prevents this infection by enclosing the bacteria in scar tissue. It is due to this special defense that only around 10 percent of people with “latent” tuberculosis develops the condition. However, if a patient is infected with HIV, they are at a greater risk of contracting the disease.
How Doctors Are Using Research to Develop a Vaccine
When the researchers at the Linköping University in Sweden discovered the connection between HIV and tuberculosis bacterium, they wanted to know more. They first started their inquiry by examining dendritic cells. These cells are a crucial aspect of the immune system, breaking down the bacteria. The body’s T-cells then kills the leftover pieces of bacteria before it has a chance to harm the body any further.
HIV inhibits the dendritic and T-cells. While most research has only proved that the virus affects T-cells, its interaction with dendritic cells is a new development.
“We have now shown that HIV has a clear effect also on the innate immune defense, in particular, the dendritic cells, which link the innate and the adaptive immune defenses. Much work remains to be done, but we can already suggest that one important future treatment strategy for infection should be to find ways to strengthen or boost cells in the immune defense using what is known as ‘host-directed therapy’,” says study lead Robert Blomgran.
Tuberculosis is a disease that mainly affects the lungs, making life difficult. Hopefully, that vaccine can be developed, so that HIV patients can be better protected.
HIV vaccines are important. However, people should not ignore HIV prevention methods. Preventing HIV is a crucial part of protecting yourself. Medical treatments act as a means of protection. However, a study has found that many gay men do not know about the HIV prevention methods that are available.
Gay Men and HIV
Gay and bisexual men have been at risk for HIV for many years. In 2013, the CDC estimated that “Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men made up an estimated 2% of the population but 55% of people living with HIV in the United States.” This is a startling statistic.
With HIV so widespread among the gay community, these men are more likely to contract the disease. The higher rates of HIV are more than likely due to many gay men having multiple partners and practicing anal sex. Unfortunately, this community has a hard road ahead when it comes to decreasing the number of men with this disease. Scientists are constantly researching new methods of preventions and vaccines to help them.
Knowledge Is Power: Knowing Which HIV Prevention Methods Can Protect You
The John Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health found that only 4 in 10 gay and bisexual men in Baltimore – who did not have HIV – are not aware that pre-exposure prophylaxis medication (PrEP) is an effective HIV prevention method.
Pre-exposure prophylaxis medication (PrEP) is a pill that is taken daily to prevent the contraction of the disease. It contains two HIV medication in one pill. For those who take this medication as prescribed, PrEP is known to be 92% effective at preventing infections in men.
HIV prevention methods are an important part of stopping the spread of the disease within the gay community. The researchers tested men in Baltimore because the number of HIV incidents in the state among gay and bisexual men was estimated to be 31 percent in 2011. Their findings suggest that doctors are not presenting the medication to their patients.
According to study leader Julia R. G. Raifman, ScD, a post-doctoral fellow in the Bloomberg School’s Department of Epidemiology, “Doctors have limited time with their patients, but with gay and bisexual male patients, physicians definitely need to make it a point to discuss HIV risks and whether PrEP is a good option.”
Antibodies are meant to identify and neutralize bacteria and viruses. In the fight against HIV, scientists hope to capitalize on this protein in order to cure people suffering from the virus. In a new study at the Rutgers University, researchers are hoping to find a way to prevent the contraction of HIV by using an experimental antibody.
The Experimental Antibody: VRC01
The AMP (Antibody Meditated Prevention) study is a clinical trial that is currently looking to prevent HIV-negative men and transgender individuals from acquiring HIV. The antibody, known as VRC01, was originally found in a man who was able to combat the infection without the use of medication. When scientists discovered this, they worked to recreate the antibody and test its effects on others.
The study targeted men who have sex with other men (homosexual, bisexual, and transgender) for a specific reason. According to the CDC, new diagnoses of HIV in the United States have dropped 19 percent from 2005 to 2014. However, among the Hispanic/Latino and African American community, infections in gay and bisexual men have increased.
Scientists feel like the study will have a positive impact. According to infectious disease specialist and site leader Shobba Swaminathan, “The study is providing ways for Rutgers to effectively partner with and engage the community effectively to ensure a positive impact that will last long after the study is completed.”
The study is testing the antibody on 2,700 HIV-negative men and transgender individuals who have sex with men. The antibody works by preventing the infection from attaching to host CD4 and T Cells. This helps the immune system function properly and fight infections. So far, laboratory tests have shown the antibody to be 90 percent effective.
Swaminathan is optimistic about this study. She calls it “The first study of this magnitude to see whether an antibody infusion can help prevent new HIV infections. If it proves effective, it could potentially pave a way for developing a vaccine for HIV infection.”