Posts tagged heart disease and HIV
Other than the brain, the heart is one of the most important organs in our body. It happens to also be a target for viruses like HIV. HIV positive individuals need to take caution and check on their heart regularly. A study shows that the risk for heart attack is much greater in those troubled by this disease.
Predicting Heart Attack Risk
The heart is vulnerable in America. At least, that is what the statistics say. Here are the facts that the CDC found:
- Every 43 seconds, someone in the United States has a heart attack.
- Every year, 735,000 Americans have a heart attack.
- Of those American, 525,00 are experiencing their first attack and 210,000 have experienced one before.
- One of 5 heart attacks is silent. This means that the patient is not aware it is happening but still suffers damage to the body.
These are truly awful facts. But what the scientists at the Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine have found may spell worse trouble for HIV patients. They are almost twice as likely to suffer from a heart attack, which more than what physicians have predicted for the general population.
Predicting the risk of heart attack is important. If a doctor discovers it early on, they can prescribe the right medicine to lower the risk. “If you have a higher risk for heart attack or stroke, your ability to benefit from one of these drugs is greater and justifies the possible side effects of a medication,” says Dr. Matthew Feinstein, cardiovascular disease fellow at Northwestern University.
Dr. Feinstein goes on to state that HIV increases heart risk by causing chronic inflammation, which can lead to plaque buildup in the body’s tissue. Eventually, this series of events in your body can lead to heart attack or stroke.
The current predictor tools for heart risk need to be adjusted. Heart medications are only given to those in serious need. If physicians cannot accurately tell if HIV patients need those medications, this will lead to dangerous consequences.
Mental health is often overlooked. However, the state of one’s mental health is important. In a 2014 data report by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), they revealed that every year, about 42.5 million American adults suffer from some form of mental illness. Find out how mental illness can lead to other concerns and how HIV-infected individuals with depression are at risk for heart attack.
Depression is a condition that leaves many feeling sad, unmotivated, and irritable. It is also known to contribute to debilitating conditions such as insomnia, fatigue, pain, and other problems. The illness can also lead to suicide, other mental disorders, and more importantly, heart disease.
The Rise of Cardiovascular Disease
According to a study published by JAMA Cardiology, those with major depressive disorder (MDD) and HIV are more likely to experience a heart attack than those without the mental disorder.
They examined 26,144 veterans with HIV and found that 4,853 of them had depression. Most of the veterans with depression were around 47 years of age. Researchers met with these veterans more than 5 years later, and discovered that 490 of them had an acute myocardial infarction during that time span.
After further research, they determined that those with depression and HIV were 25 percent more likely to have a heart attack than those without depression.
HIV patients are forced to deal with a life-threating condition every day. This could be the reason for their depression. Other cause factors include personal issues, substance abuse, and non-psychiatric illnesses.
According to the CDC, more than 1 out of 20 Americans 12 years of age and older reported current depression. Some mental health facilities try to help those with emotional disorders, however, it is not an illness that can be easily cured. Hopefully, scientists can make HIV easily treatable and less of an emotionally draining experience.
That AIDS is brought about through an HIV infection is not new knowledge. Results from a recent investigation on the process from HIV infection to AIDS, however, sheds light on the topic. Actually, the findings show that it is the body’s own cells that cause AIDS, rather than the virus directly. This new concept could change how to proceed with treatment and HIV cure.
The virus, upon entering the host, infects a healthy immune system cell (CD4 T cells). The cell in turn can infect other healthy cells. Therefore, infection is spread either from the free-floating HIV itself or via the infected cells. While this has been common knowledge for some time, it was unknown that the latter is much more destructive when it comes to disease progression. Not only is cell to cell transfer much more efficient and effective, but it can also be deadly.
Once a healthy immune cell has been infiltrated, HIV DNA fragments begin to accumulate within the cell. At first it goes undetected, but the cleaning up of these fragments becomes too much for the cell, and it is eventually detected. This overload signals the cell’s defense system. This, in turn, triggers a molecular response. The chain of events that follows is fatal, cell suicide, if you will. Once the enzyme caspase-1 is activated, what usually follows is cell death (pyroptosis). This preprogrammed response in immune cells is a type of self-defense. Cell to cell infection is so successful because mass cell ‘suicides’ are what can eventually lead to disease progression, a wiped out immune system, and AIDS.
Upon this discovery, a number of experiments were performed to confirm the findings. The results supported what had been uncovered. Scientists are sure that it is due to the efficiency in which the infection transfers from cell to cell that leads to mass cell death. In turn, treatment of HIV and preventative measures against AIDS may now focus on inhibiting cell to cell transfer rather than just on the unattached virus itself. Turning attention to CD4 T cells and coming up with solutions that will prevent infection transfers should assist in halting not just the spread of infection, but also disease progression into AIDS and thus promise of an HIV cure.
HIV Infected Individuals and Age Related Diseases: Appear at Similar Age as in Uninfected Adults
Heart attacks, cancer, and kidney failure among HIV-infected individuals has been thoroughly researched and the data shows that infected individuals are more likely to develop one of these diseases than people who are not HIV positive. This research began to be compiled in the mid-1990s, when those infected with HIV were starting to live longer thanks to new antiretroviral medications. Before these drugs were created, contracting HIV was almost certainly a death sentence. When HIV/AIDs first came onto the scene, the HIV cells would eradicate the immune system, the person would develop AIDS, and common diseases like the cold or influenza would ravage the body and kill the host. In the years since, however, antiretroviral drugs have been developed and continually improved upon, and HIV has become a manageable disease. In fact, many HIV-positive individuals have been able to live out their lives with the infection and, in the U.S. and other developed countries, are now dying of non-HIV related circumstances. With the numbers of older HIV-positive individuals growing, the amount of research on those in this group has increased. The latest studies now suggest that among HIV infected individuals, age-related diseases appear at similar ages, as compared with uninfected individuals.
Researchers at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health used data from almost 100,000 individuals, both infected and uninfected, who suffered from age-related diseases between 2003 and 2010. The results confirmed that those who are HIV-infected tend to develop heart attacks, cancer, and kidney failure much more commonly than in uninfected adults. However, it also showed that the ages of those developing heart attacks and cancer were the same in both infected and uninfected patients. Moreover, kidney failure seemed to only have a six-month gap between infected patients and patients who were not HIV positive. This news, that among HIV infected individuals age-related diseases appear at similar ages regardless of HIV status, shows that the timeline of getting checked for these diseases does not have to be significantly altered. However, the importance of checkups is still much greater for HIV-infected adults.
Cardiovascular Disease and HIV: A Leading Cause of Mortality
Careful monitoring of those with HIV can help slow down the progression of the disease and other conditions that may come along too. Links between HIV and other chronic conditions are well-known and documented. Recent trends in regards to cardiovascular disease and HIV, however, have physicians on the lookout for new treatments and approaches, as the number of patients suffering from high cholesterol and hypertension is on the rise. This calls for action and new strategies for helping patients not only maintain heart health, but their overall well-being.
While a connection is not surprising between HIV and cardiovascular disease, researchers have noticed a trend that gives cause for concern. Many HIV-positive patients who present with either high cholesterol or hypertension are receiving treatment. The problem lies in the fact that, of those who are on medications, few are actually showing improvement. Clearly, a more effective approach is needed.
The prospects of gaining control over HIV have vastly improved in recent years. Today, HIV can be controlled, and a patient can lead a relatively healthy life. So, while the main cause of death for someone with HIV is not the virus, the other common causes of HIV related deaths now need to be addressed. Of these, stroke and heart attacks are on the rise. The treatments that are available and in use are generally able to control the conditions. The issue is one of helping patients understand the risks, guidelines, and course of treatment. Educating patients and helping them to stick with the outlined course will help change current trends.
Cardiovascular disease and HIV is a reality. While cardiologists and other specialists can help stem the tide, new treatment options are also needed. In order to have more effective results, medications that are specific to the needs and circumstances of those with HIV will have to be developed.